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Timeline of Gender Identity Research

Following is a timeline of selected works and events in the history of gender identity research. It is not intended to be a complete chronology, but merely a guide in historically contextualizing research in gender identity.

1905 Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, by Sigmund Freud, published
1910 Magnus Hirschfeld, a German sexologist and an openly gay man, publishes The Transvestites, coining the term
1919 Hirschfeld’s Institute for Sexual Science, the first clinic to serve transgendered people on a regular basis, opens in Berlin, Germany
1920 Jonathan Gilbert publishes Homosexuality and Its Treatment , a case study of Dr. Alan Hart, who would today be described as a female-to-male transsexual
1930 Lili Elbe undergoes SRS in Germany, later dying after removal of unsuccessfully transplanted ovaries
1931 Felix Abraham publishes “Genital Reassignment of Two Male Transvestites”
1933 Institute for Sexual Science closed by the Nazis
1952 Christine Jorgensen undergoes SRS and returns to a US media frenzy
1955 The term “gender role” first appears in print
1966 Harry Benjamin publishes The Transsexual Phenomena
New clinic for transsexuals opens at The Johns Hopkins Hospital
1967 Money publishes “The genetics of homosexuality”
1969 Green & Money publish Transsexualism and sex reassignment.
The Stonewall riots
1970 Money publishes “Sex reassignment”
1973 American Psychiatric Association votes to remove homosexuality from DSM ; subsequent version includes “ego-dystonic homosexuality” as a diagnosis
1974 Green publishes Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults
1975 Money publishes case study on John/Joan, whose penis was destroyed by a botched circumcision and who was reassigned female, with his identical twin brother functioning as a “control” in the “experiment of opportunity”
1975 Money & Tucker publish Sexual Signatures: On Being a Man or a Woman
1979 First draft of Harry Benjamin Standards of Care approved by the Sixth Annual Gender Dysphoria Symposium
1979 Janice Raymond publishes The Transsexual Empire
1980 DSM-III published: gender identity disorder is added as diagnosis
Paul Walker organizes the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association
Teenage “John/Joan” learns the details of his birth and immediately reverts to living as a boy.
1986 Homosexual diagnosis removed entirely from the DSM-IIIR
1987 Green publishes The ‘Sissy Boy Syndrome’ and the development of homosexuality.
1988 Blanchard & Clemmensen of Clarke Institute publish “A Test of the DSM-III-R’s Implicit Assumption that Fetishistic Arousal and Gender Dysphoria are Mutually Exclusive” in the Journal of Sex Research
Rekers’ “The formation of a homosexual orientation” appears in a publication of The Center for Child and Family Policy
1989 Billy Tipton, jazz musician, dies and is discovered to be female after presenting as a man since 1933.
1990 Rekers, et al publish “Long-term effects of treatment for childhood gender disturbance”
1994 DSM-IV published
1996 Money publishes Man & Woman, Boy & Girl
1997 Isay’s call for removal of childhood GID from the DSM published in Psychiatric Times
1998 In Medical Law, Money publishes “Case consultation: ablatio penis,” in which he suggests the boy might be raised as a boy
Japan allows first legal SRS to be performed on an FTM
The Royal College of Psychiatrists publishes report, “Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adolescents”
1999 Green mentions existence of gay and lesbian transsexuals in his presidential address at the XVI Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association Symposium
2000 DSM-IV-TR published
2002 Chung, et al publish article on size of BSTc region of brain in trans women in The Journal of Neuroscience

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