Following is a timeline of selected works and events in the history of gender identity research. It is not intended to be a complete chronology, but merely a guide in historically contextualizing research in gender identity.
|Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, by Sigmund Freud, published
|Magnus Hirschfeld, a German sexologist and an openly gay man, publishes The Transvestites, coining the term
|Hirschfeld’s Institute for Sexual Science, the first clinic to serve transgendered people on a regular basis, opens in Berlin, Germany
|Jonathan Gilbert publishes Homosexuality and Its Treatment , a case study of Dr. Alan Hart, who would today be described as a female-to-male transsexual
|Lili Elbe undergoes SRS in Germany, later dying after removal of unsuccessfully transplanted ovaries
|Felix Abraham publishes “Genital Reassignment of Two Male Transvestites”
|Institute for Sexual Science closed by the Nazis
|Christine Jorgensen undergoes SRS and returns to a US media frenzy
|The term “gender role” first appears in print
|Harry Benjamin publishes The Transsexual Phenomena
|New clinic for transsexuals opens at The Johns Hopkins Hospital
|Money publishes “The genetics of homosexuality”
|Green & Money publish Transsexualism and sex reassignment.
|The Stonewall riots
|Money publishes “Sex reassignment”
|American Psychiatric Association votes to remove homosexuality from DSM ; subsequent version includes “ego-dystonic homosexuality” as a diagnosis
|Green publishes Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults
|Money publishes case study on John/Joan, whose penis was destroyed by a botched circumcision and who was reassigned female, with his identical twin brother functioning as a “control” in the “experiment of opportunity”
|Money & Tucker publish Sexual Signatures: On Being a Man or a Woman
|First draft of Harry Benjamin Standards of Care approved by the Sixth Annual Gender Dysphoria Symposium
|Janice Raymond publishes The Transsexual Empire
|DSM-III published: gender identity disorder is added as diagnosis
|Paul Walker organizes the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association
|Teenage “John/Joan” learns the details of his birth and immediately reverts to living as a boy.
|Homosexual diagnosis removed entirely from the DSM-IIIR
|Green publishes The ‘Sissy Boy Syndrome’ and the development of homosexuality.
|Blanchard & Clemmensen of Clarke Institute publish “A Test of the DSM-III-R’s Implicit Assumption that Fetishistic Arousal and Gender Dysphoria are Mutually Exclusive” in the Journal of Sex Research
|Rekers’ “The formation of a homosexual orientation” appears in a publication of The Center for Child and Family Policy
|Billy Tipton, jazz musician, dies and is discovered to be female after presenting as a man since 1933.
|Rekers, et al publish “Long-term effects of treatment for childhood gender disturbance”
|Money publishes Man & Woman, Boy & Girl
|Isay’s call for removal of childhood GID from the DSM published in Psychiatric Times
|In Medical Law, Money publishes “Case consultation: ablatio penis,” in which he suggests the boy might be raised as a boy
|Japan allows first legal SRS to be performed on an FTM
|The Royal College of Psychiatrists publishes report, “Gender Identity Disorders in Children and Adolescents”
|Green mentions existence of gay and lesbian transsexuals in his presidential address at the XVI Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association Symposium
|Chung, et al publish article on size of BSTc region of brain in trans women in The Journal of Neuroscience